Authors: N.C. Voermansa, M. Snoeckb, H. Jungbluth
Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with a wide spectrum of inherited myopathies presenting throughout life. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS)-related RYR1 mutations have emerged as a common cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis, accounting for up to 30% of rhabdomyolysis episodes in otherwise healthy individuals. Common triggers are exercise and heat and, less frequently, viral infections, alcohol and drugs. Most subjects are normally strong and have no personal or family history of malignant hyperthermia. Heat intolerance and cold-induced muscle stiffness may be a feature. Recognition of this (probably not uncommon) rhabdomyolysis cause is vital for effective counseling, to identify potentially malignant hyperthermia-susceptible individuals and to adapt training regimes. Studies in various animal models provide insights regarding possible pathophysiological mechanisms and offer therapeutic perspectives.
Keywords: Skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor, (RYR1) gene, Ryanodine receptor (RyR1), Exertional rhabdomyolysis, Exercise, Rhabdomyolysis, Genetic, Myopathy